[Note 1]

The concept of "Global City" was first proposed under the term "World City" by Jnhn Friedmann and Goetz Wolff, "World City Formation: An Agenda for Research and Action," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 6 (1982): 309-344; The term "Global City" has been more common since the publication of Saskia Sassen, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo (Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1991). Sassen defines "global cities" as not merely large, but functioning in the world economy "in four new ways: first, as highly concentrated command points in the organization of the world economy; second, as key locations for finance and for specialized service firms, which have replaced manufacturing as the leading economic sectors; third, as sites of production, including the production of innovations, and fourth, as markets for the products and innovations produced" (3-4). As Janet Abu-Lughod rightly observes, however, it is very hard to support the claim that these four functions are new to the late twentieth century (in Sassen's account, since 1960). Abu-Lughod, in her New York, Chicago, Los Angeles: America's Global Cities (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999), agrees that these features define a "global city," but demonstrates that all were present in New York City by the mid-nineteenth century.