[Note 25]

"Institutionalization occurs whenever there is a reciprocal typification of habitualized actions by types of actors. Put differently, any such typification is an institution." Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (Garden City, N.Y., 1966), 51. For a spirited rejoinder (which inexplicably never mentions Berger and Luckmann), see John Searle, The Construction of Social Reality (New York, 1995). Searle attempts, unsuccessfully it seems to me, to rescue the Cartesian dualism between "institutional facts" and "external reality." I am writing here within a discourse of the "new institutionalism" in the social sciences. For representative examples, see James G. March and Johan P. Olsen, Rediscovering Institutions: The Organizational Basis of Politics (New York, 1989); Karen Orren and Stephen Skowronek, "Beyond the Iconography of Order: Notes for a 'New Institutionalism,' " in Lawrence Dodd and Calvin Jillson, eds., The Dynamics of American Politics (Boulder, Colo., 1988), For an overview, see Philip J. Ethington and Eileen McDonagh, "The Eclectic Center of the New Institutionalism: Axes of Analysis in Comparative Perspective," Social Science History 19 (Winter 1995): 467-77.