[Note 2]

The "survey" tradition in urban scholarship began with Charles Booth, et al., Life and Labour of the People in London (London and New York: The Macmillan Co., 1902), and Jane Addams, Ellen Gates Starr, et al., Hull-House Maps and Papers: A Presentation of Nationalities and Wages in a Congested District of Chicago, Together with Comments and Essays on Problems Growing out of the Social Conditions (New York: Thomas Crowell and Co., 1895). These texts clearly mark the origins of social-scientific urban scholarship. For the intellectual history of social surveys and their long-term impact, see Martin Bulmer, Kevin Bales, and Kathryn Kish Sklar, eds., The Social Survey in Historical Perspective (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990).